Saturday, January 30, 2010

It'll swallow your entire head!

I'll admit it -- I'm not this huge fan of the state of Florida. Please don't send me nasty letters and packages of rotten citrus fruit; everyone's entitled to their tastes. I'm just way more a Western Side of the Country girl. Florida for me has Disney and the center and as far as I'm concerned, I can take a plane to Orlando, board the Giant Mouse Bus, and get whisked away to Epcot and that's all I really need to see of the state.

Well, I'm here to tell you right now: I've been converted. At least a little. For right now (I'm still not willing to admit an entire conversion. I need to be gentle with myself here.)

Silver Springs in Ocala, Florida is a wonderland of nature's best show-offs. Glittering crustal clear springs, towering trees bedecked with Spanish moss. And animals -- some very rare animals.

Pictured here is the Cuban crocodile, one of a large selection of 'dile and 'gator species who inhabit the park. Behind glass. Thick glass. HIGH glass.

After visiting each one, I would say, "I respect you. I wish you nothing but good. Please don't eat my head."

Well, I'm here typing, so it seemed to work.

Thursday, January 28, 2010

"Sea Hunt" -- scuba for the manly man!

Oh heavens, I'm getting the vapors! Lloyd Bridges was SO MANLY in these old "Sea Hunt" episodes. Do yourself a favor: this is a 9-minute clip from Youtube -- at least watch the very beginning. It's got that "manly man doing manly things" vibe so very typical in the depiction of 50s TV heroes. Grrrrrrr..... GUSTO!

"Sea Hunt" was filmed in part at Silver Springs Park in Ocala, FL -- my next park to visit for the Cotton Candy Roadtrip!!

Wonder if I'll see any of these swarthy scuba types, spitting into their scuba masks, "thwacking" on their scuba hoods.... oooooh.....

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

ABBA World

I'm a big fan of the WGN Morning news, featuring my "Hey Pam! Wakey Wakey Eggs and Bakey" fellow South Sider Robin Baumgarten, the cute 'n acerbic Larry Potash, and "Polka Weather Guy" Paul Konrad (my quotes, not his. But they always play polkas under his forecasts, so...). Armed with a mug of hot tea, I perch on the couch and find out what's been going on in the world, and also am pretty much guaranteed to start out the day being well entertained. They're a barrel of hijinx.

But when Robin told me to stay tuned for news on ABBA World, which she SAID was an "ABBA theme park", I basically squeaked! ABBA theme park? Imagine the possibilities: "En Karusell" (pretty self-explanatory), "Take a Chance on Me" arcade ("Where 'the winner takes it all!'"), "Super Trooper" paratroopers, "Head Over Heels" rollercoaster, and, of course, the "Waterloo" log flume.

So imagine the sad trombone music that played in my living room when it turned out ABBA World, which just opened in London, is an exhibition of ABBA memorabilia and history, probably similar to the "Titanic" exhibition, but no one drowns. Fans get to tour through 25 rooms of glittery jumpsuits, take a quiz to test their knowledge of all things Björn, Benny, Agnetha and Anni-Frid, and even "sing along live with ABBA" with super souped-up Swedish video karaoke!

I still like my amusement park ride ideas. Maybe I need to track down their private island and have them build it there.

(Just don't want to see those puppets again. Night terrors...)

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Putting it Together

Lots of things go into putting together your plans for a trip. The booking of flights, renting of cars, packing of clothes, buying of Earplanes. With Dad in the condition he's in, there's even more detailed planning. He's now officially a candidate for assisted living, although we have to get him completely assessed by his MD before he can be moved to the assisted living quarters at his retirement home.

Part of us feels very selfish about even going on the trip that's, oh, just around the corner. But life doesn't really come with a crystal ball and since I'm no Mystic Meg (although I've been told I look like her. Maybe that's the picture I should use as my Facebook profile, as this week is apparently "Doppleganger Week" where you're supposed to post a picture of someone people say you look like), I have no way to know if Dad will be stable while we're away, or if all systems will fail simultaneously.

So we pray, we hope, and we bring in the artillery.

Friends and relatives who live nearby are being encouraged to just drop by his place and say "hi". So much of his condition can't be alleviated, but what can be lessened is any boredom he might feel; restlessness has never been his buddy.

Folks will stop by and update us on his mood, how he's "seeming". And besides our posse, we also have the incredible staff at the Arms who keep him comfortable, safe, and secure. Sure, you could say they're being paid to do so and they are, but their heart is undeniably in it. You can tell in the way they communicate with him, with us.

"No, you two go on and enjoy your vacation. Dan is in good hands. I'll watch him myself! Just try keeping me away from him!" said one of Dad's healthcare workers, a sassy lady who goes from sweet to jalapeno in a nanosecond.

So our visit to Silver Springs is days away. And then onto the Disney Cruise and ports sun-worhippy, pineapple-scented, and marine blue.

We both need it. And Dad will be fine. We must take this opportunity, embrace it, run with it -- because we don't have the ability to do our scrying, to find out what Dad's health will be like in even a month or so from now.

Deep breath. A smile. Smiling is good for you, clears out the dustbunnies in your soul.

Okay. Now the only worry I have is how very outdated my swimsuit is. And the fact that in just a few short days, I'll be SEEN in a swimsuit, period.

Monday, January 25, 2010

Powder sugar...

It's powder sugaring outside my window. Quite lovely. There's something about snow at dusk that's particularly magical; it gets this robin's egg blue cast, an opalescent glow. It's not sticking to the street yet, just the grass and slightly on the trees.

I often refer to the period of the year I'm born in as the "armpit of the calendar". Although we Aquarians are a magical lot, the time of year in which we're born often seems far from it: frigid, barren, and bunny-free.

But on late afternoons like this, with the delicate falling flakes and the wind picking up just a tad, it makes me glad to have a birthday season with this as a backdrop.

Sunday, January 24, 2010

Sunday on the Blog with Photos!

I used to collect these adorable little ceramic figurines back when I was a sprout. Waldameer Park is one of the only places I've found with an extensive collection Hagen-Renaker. As our beaglette Ivy is also reminiscent of the venerable Jack Russell terrier, I scooped one up.

Enjoy the array.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

As weak as a newborn baby lamb...

I highly recommend, even if people tell you otherwise, to not get stomach flu or food poisoning. It makes for a messy, slow-moving, uncomfortable, achy day, not to mention you can't/shouldn't/won't eat anything more savory than a saltine.

But this got me to thinking, as many of my thoughts these days swing back to amusement park-related memories: have you ever gotten really, stinking, blindingly sick on a ride? This delightful occurrence happened to me back in 1978 at the Old Chicago indoor amusement park (which my Mom hated: "It's like a factory, not an amusement park! Clang, clang, clang. Bah.). I invited my girlfriends Nancy and Linda along with Gregg, who I was quite sweet on, over to this monolithic palace, the day showed such promise. Until, only about a third of the way through, I met up with the English Rotor and it basically planted me in the ground for the rest of the day. I vaguely remember Gregg, who I was quite sweet on, finding it funny at first, but then realizing my pallor was for real -- and refrained from the caustic humor for the rest of the day, speaking in quiet tones, which really wasn't his style. I also recall getting a lollipop to suck on, to alleviate the queasiness.

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Mystic crystal revelations...

It's January 21, the first day this year that the Sun is in the sign of Aquarius, ruled by Uranus (stop snickering), the bringer of all that's wacky, unexpected, humanitarian, innovative, off-kilter, rebellious, enigmatic, and quixotic. Aquarians are a misfit lot of visionaries, vagrants, vagabonds and wunderkinds. To even tap the surface of those who are Aquarians (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,Oprah Winfrey, and Emo Philips. Now that's variety!)is to astonish you with the aurora borealis of characters who've woven themselves into the tapestry of the ages as creators, geniuses, and philantropists, all possessing vibrant personalities and often the complete inability to sit still for more than five minutes.

I proudly stand alongside the likes of "Monty Python"'s Terry Jones, Christopher Guest, Eartha Kitt and Alice Cooper, as your uniquely Aquarian guide through vintage amusement parks across the country, not just your garden-variety travel tip book.

Expect the cow to actually jump over the moon.

(Photo: Storybook Gardens, Wisconsin Dells, WI)

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

A tough day...

Dad had a tough day today, which means mine was tough as well. I won't go into all the details, but his care level needs to be elevated, especially when it comes to bathrooming, keeping clean. It's not his fault; it's just a new way of looking at things. He needs diapers now -- and he hates them with the strength of a battalion of tanks invading Poland. But he's had accidents and that causes him discomfort and embarrassment. So that's what needs to be done.

When you arrive at your Dad's apartment and he's out of it, soiled, and tired, you need to put other things aside for a bit because he's your Dad and he's priority. So I balanced taking care of those things while still keeping light (as light as possible), and making sure he knows he's done nothing wrong.

I'll resume your regularly scheduled bit of amusement soon.

Tuesday, January 19, 2010


Del Grosso's Amusement Park in Tipton, PA serves teaberry ice cream.

For those of you who live in the East Coast, or at least closer East than West, this is no big deal. You can probably jaunt on down to the local grocer and snatch up a pint of this licoricey goodness whenever the mood strikes. But for this Chicago girl, teaberry ice cream is an enigma, a mysterious taste sensation, mixing the aforementioned licorice with a hint of cinnamon, laced with vanilla smoothness, in a salmon-pink blush.

For those of you jsut itching to revel in the uniqueness of teaberry, here's a recipe to try. I have not tested it, so you're flying without a net here -- often a great place to be. Let me know what happens...


1/2 lb. teaberries, soak in milk overnight
3 heaping tbsp. cornstarch
2 tbsp. flour
3 qts. milk
5 eggs
2 1/2 c. granulated sugar

Place in a double boiler and cook until it thickens. Remove from heat and add: 2 tbsp. vanilla
Cool ingredients. Place in your ice cream freezer and freeze.

Monday, January 18, 2010

Learned something new today.

Visited my chiropractor today. I call this magic-maker Dr. CrackyBacky, alhtough he has a different name for Muggles. At any rate, visited him today for my monthly adjustment. I have a monthly visit ever since December 2008, when I pulled out my back, midback all the way down to my coccyx, when I made the unfortunate decision to wrap Christmas gifts while sitting on the hardwood floor. Part of my wrapping activities included stretching way over to the right in a rather gymnastic fashion for a spool of ribbon. Then approximately half an hour later, I picked up my dainty beaglette, a mere 19 lb. dog. But my back was already compromised, so something blew, popped, went kaflooey -- I yanked my crank, experiencing the worst imaginable pain for days. Since then, I have a delicate midback, which I add to this list of spinal maladies: an always crunchy neck (from a rear-end car accident almost 30 years ago. And WRITING), and a crazy coccyx, made all the crazier from the time I landed smack on it while performing in a production of "The Nerd" back in the early 90s. It was the "Jump real fast on just one leg!!" part of Act II. They had waxed the floor but didn't bother to tell us actors.

So. What I learned today is that if you have a delicate back, you should not think about taking a ride in a power boat anytime soon or ever. As Dr. CrackyBacky put it, "Imagine you go to sit down and someone pulls the chair out from under you. Now imagine you land on a pillow. But imagine this chair gets pulled out again and again and again. That's riding in a power boat on the ocean." So when we do go on our cruise, I'll be hiking, Ben will be skipping merrily on the ocean like James Bond on that power boat.

Before we go or on our cruise, we'll visit Silver Springs Park in Ocala, FL. They have a glass bottom boat ride that I'm really excited about trying. Since I possess my very own glass bottom (of sorts), rides with a little less bump and jostle suit me just fine (another reason, a practical one, for not writing a book that's primarily about rollercoasters. Plus there are enough adrenaline junkies out there to do it for me).

Now pardon me while I crunch my neck from side to side, alarming the people sitting nearby at the coffeehouse. Maybe I should start carrying around pretzels to mask the sound...

Sunday, January 17, 2010

Sunday on the Blog with Photos!

As a teen, when I rode a swing chair ride I'd always play the entire version of the Beatles' "Flying" in my head. There are no lyrics to speak of really, just "la"s and many of them. It might not be one of the Fab Four's greatest musical achievements, but the next time you're flying through space on one of these puppies, try adding it as your mental soundtrack.

Pictured above is Cedar Point's Wave Swinger, rated on the park's site as a "moderate thrill" ride. It left me more than moderately dizzy. But the detail painting is superb, you gotta admit.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

I dare you not to get up and get down!

Needed to share this. Looking at January 16 in history... nothing amusement park-related. Then the memory of this song from the soundtrack of the 1996 film, "Beavis and Butthead Do America" sprang to mind. As far as I'm concerned, I'm partial to the Red Hot Chili Peppers version over the original. So sit back, crack open a Mexican Coke (much better than the American version as the folks south of the border get that regular sugar is a much better sweetener than HFCS), and enjoy this wacky romp. You will dance. Oh yes, you WILL dance (and oh yes -- those ARE kazoos you're hearing in the rap part).

Friday, January 15, 2010


I dedicate this day, January 15, as Share a Favorite Childhood Memory Day! Takers? Anyone? Okay, well I should start anyway.

Distinct images of visiting Fairyland Park in Lyons, IL. Fairyland held lots of magic: a vintage carousel, tons of kiddie rides, the pedal cars, the "big kid" rides like the Octopus and the Paratroopers (which was my long-time favorite ride until just recently when I found out the hard way that something sinister happens between your 'tween years and 40-something to your inner ear. I believe this is common medical knowledge; if you attempt a ride on such a contraption, you yourself will find this out).

Fairyland also had a raffle booth, a trailer actually, with raffle tickets of the "open up and read the number and see what prize you won" variety. Well, on a fabled day in the early 70s, I took my chances (and allowance money) over to the trailer, bought one raffle ticket and PRESTO! the carny (I guess it was a carny??) took down a hot pink hound dog from the pegboard wall and handed it to me over the counter. This hot pink hound dog was approximately 4 feet tall and took up around 10% of the square footage of my small bedroom. Imagine my delight when I lugged my new pal over to meet my Mom! Imagine my Dad then having to lug said dog around the park for the rest of the day!!

I believe Pinky was a part of the family for many a year, until I landed on him with the full strength of my chubby frame and broke his neck.

Share! What's a favorite childhood memory, especially one that took place at a vintage amusement park? Curious minds..

Thursday, January 14, 2010

Some breathing space. And a request.

Oprah gets it. Every month in her magazine, she devotes a full two pages to something beautiful: the ocean at sunset, a field of lavender, a verdant mountainside. It's a lovely way to let her reader simply dissolve and get lost in the image, to have a virtual vacation while sitting on the sofa.

Today, I'd like to offer the same: a sample of the vibrant landscaping found at Lakemont Park in Altoona, PA. Please enjoy.

Now here's my request: if you have even ten dollars to spare, please send a donation to the Red Cross so the people of Haiti will have all the help they can get. Right now, many of them are not able to focus on anything beautiful. Much of what was beautiful has been destroyed by the earthquake. Their main focus is survival.

Please contact the Red Cross or Oxfam and give what you can.

Peace -- Pam

Wednesday, January 13, 2010

Wayback Machine: commercial

First, read my earlier blog entry about "Adventureland", the great coming-of-age flick from last year. Then take a peek at this video, an actual commercial for Kennywood Park (where a portion of the movie was filmed)from 1988. All I need now are my penny loafers, ribbon tie and striped blouse and I'm all set (yep, I was more of a prep than a New Waver, although I listened mostly to New Wave, so I guess I had it all covered).

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

A balancing act, with difficult ease.

Sometimes balancing the time between life (like being with your husband and sleeping and hygiene and walking your dog and putting together an outfit that won't scare small children), work (pretty self-explanatory) and taking care of Dad is handily embodied by the image of the 2 of Pentacles in tarot. He's part sideshow juggler and part village eccentric, but he's also pretty adept at his juggling craft and almost seems to be enjoying the challenge. But if you look closer, the waters behind him are disturbed, stormy. It's "Anything Can Happen Day" for him, 24/7.

He may enjoy what he's doing -- it may even be a calling. But it's just not easy.

My dad is my buddy. My dad has always been my playmate and fellow Mischief Maker. It was my dad who really reveled in taking us to amusement parks, in making sure we had time to relax, play, bask in some amusement from time to time. I remember my first visit to Disneyland clearly, my Dad spinning us into giddy dizziness on the Teacup Ride, blurring us into a swirl of candy-colored laughter.

Dad last visited Disneyland with us on his 80th birthday four years ago, which also happened to be the park's 50th. Even back then, we could tell Dad's physical condition was on the wane, but his spirit remained peppery. While he wasn't able to take on the Indiana Jones ride, he was able to tackle Pirates of the Caribbean, his long-time favorite. The downward dive of the boat splashed water in his ear, making Dad giggle impishly at the experience. Later in the day, as his energy drained, he enjoyed sitting near Main Street and listening to the ragtime piano player, sipping an iced tea and the sweet summer air.

Toward the end of our visit, Dad took us aside in the hallway of the Disneyland Hotel, "I can't wait to come back!"

Dad walks with a walker now. His amusement park days may be over. This reality wracks me.

Every park I visit, Dad gets a post card. Every park I visit, Dad gets an update.

I take Dad along every single time.

Monday, January 11, 2010

"Adventureland": take a ride!

2009 wasn't the most memorable year in film, if you ask me. But there were some mighty exceptions -- and one of the mightiest happened to be one of the most heartfelt coming of age films in decades.

Written and directed by Greg Mottola, the film traces the story of our hero, James Brennan (played by the likeable and hugely relateable Jesse Eisenberg) as he takes a seemingly nowhere job at his local amusement park for the summer - which turns out to have life-changing turns. Set in 1987, it's got a great retro sensibility, aided in large part by a BOSS soundtrack (you'll be humming "Rock Me, Amadeus" for days -- I'm just warning you)and a talented cast of young actors, including "Twilight"'s Kristen Stewart as Brennan's love interest.

"Adventureland"'s amusement park sequences were shot at Pittsburgh's Kennywood Park, although the real Adventureland Park is in Farmingdale, NY on Long Island (and, yes, I DO plan on visiting it for my book, you better believe it).

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Sunday on the Blog with Photos!

Let's start the Sunday Photo Fun with a great example of the vintage neon signs found at Lakeside Park in Denver, Colorado. Many of them date back to the 40s through early 60s. The Spider ride is also known as the Octopus (or, as Kiddieland's version was called, the Polyp).

Saturday, January 9, 2010

Long ago, far away...

A snowy Saturday morning can turn one's thoughts to the reasons and inspirations for things. Today's no exception, so I share with you a bit of nostalgia from the childhood park closest to my heart, Fairyland Park, which was situated on south Harlem Avenue in Lyons, IL until the mid-1970s. Our "neighborhood" park, it felt like an extension of my backyard, only cooler, since it had rides and cotton candy (made fresh!) and I played my first video game (Pong) there.

Friday, January 8, 2010

A New Zoo Review?

Just caught a note on Facebook from the Brookfield Zoo: apparently this Sunday, our governor will speak at a "family-friendly" event and unveil some sort of news about the future of the zoo.

While I'm hoping for the very best, I feel a bit cautionary. Zoos are feeling the pinch across the coutnry due to the economy, much like amusement parks are. Brookfield is not only a world-class zoo, but historically significant, boasting scads of WPA architecture. How many of you have a childhood photo taken while straddling one of those lion statues? It's a Chicago area kid's right-of-passage (that and collecting every Mold-a-rama you could get your hands on).

Thursday, January 7, 2010

With visions of sugarplums...

Maybe it's the truckloads of snow that are being deposited all around our property that's making me think of this, but if I had one wish right now, it would be: to ride the world's highest Ferris wheel, swooping up among the tallest fir trees, taking in the snow-topped Rockies. What a rush. And bonus: the air is thinner up there, too. I overheard the woman who disembarked the ride before we hopped on. Her one-word summary: "majestic."

You have to visit it before the holidays, but it's worth keeping this in mind for the upcoming Christmas holiday in, yes, 11+ months. Santa's North Pole Workshop, at the foothills of Pike's Peak in Colorado, becomes a heavenly winter wonderland where the spirit of Christmas is quite palpable. When we were there back in September, many of the folks I interviewed touted the week leading up to Christmas, including Christmas Eve, as the most memorable time to visit (although I thoroughly enjoyed hearing "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer being played at the carousel in the late summertime).

Don't forget to say "hello" to the Jolly Old Elf himself while you're there (I asked for Colorforms...).

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

Altruism in 2010: Honor Your Vintage Park that it may dwell long on the earth...

So, you might be curious about some of the links I’ve posted on the right side of this blog. I'll be adding more as the days and months progress. A major reason in my choosing to visit forty vintage parks across the U.S. is that they are, sadly, a vanishing lot. Any Chicago-area reader will note the horrible events that transpired to close the gates of Kiddieland forever, just a few months ago. So if by visiting and writing about these parks I can keep just one park open just one year longer, my work is done. In all fairness, most of the parks I've visited seem to be doing well. Recent articles I've come across detail a trend to vacationing near one's home, or taking driving vacations, so many smaller parks have seen steady business - in some cases even an upswing! But one can never be completely sure of the continuation of any business these days, so I valiantly continue my pilgrimage.

And so, this brings me to Conneaut Lake Park. Click on the link and visit the site. You'll see that the park traveled a bumpy road in the past several years. The trustees of the park are accepting donations; some of them come with historically-inspired swag!! Make a donation and you can own a piece of the boardwalk. Or own a commemorative coin. You may also wish to purchase a book about the alleged Conneaut Hotel hauntings (Do I think it's haunted? Well, someone whispered in my ear while I spied into the vintage bar area -- and it wasn't Ben...)

Conneaut Park deserves to last for decades to come. I've dedicated a full chapter of my book to this historical masterpiece. Take some time today to learn more about it! (There. I've done my good deed for Wednesday, January 6, 2010. Peace out.)

Tuesday, January 5, 2010

Yummy yummy yummy, I have buttered rum in my tummy...

While working on my book, and the proposal, and researching more parks, I've holed up at my favorite neighborhood coffeehouse, Elijah's. One of their specialities is something called a "hot buttered rum latte." When I asked the nice counter lady to hold half the syrup (my usual request for anything latteish or mochaish), she said, "Oh, we don't' use syrup for this one. It's an actual buttered rum mix." I inhaled sharply and asked, "Like, with BUTTER?" She said, "Yes, but just a little." She then shared her secret: when she gets a hankering for said latte, she'll apparently skip breakfast that day.

Dang. I had breakfast. I'm doomed from a Weight Watchers stand"point". I can actually feel my waistline expanding, like an inflating bounce house at a block party.

Okay then -- enough sybaritic musings on all things butter. Back to the mind-numbing excursion that is seeking out what books are in competition with mine, and ferreting out who's my audience. If you're reading this, I'm thinking it's YOU, so please do introduce yourself and tell me what draws you to vintage amusement parks!

Monday, January 4, 2010

A wintery day with thoughts of ports southeastern...

Okay then. It's winter, most amusement parks are closed right now, and I haven't got a bucketload of money to just trapise off and visit any at this moment in time. But I'm quite excited to be planning a visit in Florida at the end of the month (part of a swoop down to Sunny Land that also includes a much-anticipated cruise on the Floating Mouse House, one we've had booked for 2 long years)to Silver Springs in Ocala, FL. Known as "Nature's Theme Park", Silver Springs dates back, well, you could actually trace it back to the 1870s when a fellow fashioned a glass-bottom boat and gave boat rides in the area. Silver Springs also has some Hollywood glam connected with it, as the backdrop to the old Johnny Weissmuller "Tarzan" movies AND (get this -- get a load of the way coolness)the 50s TV show "Sea Hunt" was filmed there, starring the weatherblown-yet-sexy Lloyd Bridges. Silver Springs is now a National Landmark and that's a big plus in keeping it around for years to come.

Sunday, January 3, 2010

Joy to the Blog -- the Blog has come!

Okay world, I've done it. I've finally fashioned a blog and the world already feels like a happier, better place. Or at LEAST a place where I'll have more of a Web presence. Because I hear this is a very important thing.

Welcome to Post Number One for "Cotton Candyriffic" -- a blog I've started to run in tandem with my journeys for the book I'm currently writing, "The Cotton Candy Roadtrip", a travel memoir wherein I travel to forty, 40+ year-old amusement parks in search of what makes each place memorable and special. Sometimes it has to do directly with cotton candy even!

But right now, on this particularly frozen January afternoon, I'm all about celebrating the fact that I've got this up and running. So I'll be chugging back some minted hot cocoa real soon. Just watch. I'll even add mini-marshmallows, the adventurous soul that I am.

Peace, blessings, and love to all in 2010 (twennyten)